Ethnic pride , or patriotism is something many people have, and arguably is a normal part of a person’s identity, usually harmless too, i,e someone enjoying elements of their heritage or learning about their ancestry,
“Racial” pride on the other hand, that is a wholly different beast, it is a belief in a total fiction, ethnic pride at least has a history of usually a local community of people who have a culture spanning typically centuries, racial has only existed for 3 centuries, and was the primary justifier of political and economic motives of the classical liberal era (such as slavery and colonialism). Today it’s vestiges plague our societal dynamics, especially in the USA where its politics goes on. Europe has not had a concept of being a united genetic group literally until the modern era (and even that is suspect).
It is taboo because humans are a very tribal animal (tribalism is a double edged sword, its how we organise to get shit done but it also causes so much unnecessary strife. Race was a corner stone of many a eugenic or genocidal ideologies and actions in history, its role politically was to justify it, and its horrendously flexible as well, again the irish were viewed as “white chimpanzees” when they got colonized and ethnically cleansed. Even now many of those who believe in hard categories of race have massive issues concisely defining it in science.
This is several questions in one.
There are genetic differences between various groups of humans, but the genetic variation of humans is stronger in between groups (as in 2 africans or europeans will be more divergent genetically between themselves respectively) then africans vs europeans or other “race”. These variations are not enough to justify taxonomical statements, which is why in almost all of the sciences they have been completely abandoned, and most groupings are usually used for historical accounts, Such as haplo groups for tracking ancestry of various human ethnicities. Humans have constantly being interbreeding with each other (as the haplo group maps prove, only a handful of ethnicities are even close to “purity” of any kind, such as the irish, who werent even considered ironically white for much of the time). A biochemist i know put it succinctly, for taxonomy and biologists to recognize hard categories like race , that we use to divide up other species into subspecies or groups, require dramatic variation of intra group fertility (basically different alleged races reproducing far less when together as a result of usually mechanical issues such as geographic isolation or sexual selection)
Now, moving on to ethnicity. Its recongised in the sciences and academia as a mix of culture, heritage and ancestry, and is a “thing” in the sense that its somewhat tangible, its worth a topic of its own.
Happlo group map of the world:
Humanity being this mish-mash and continuously mixing (MISCEGENATING SPECIES). ^ ,
This , what will soon be a legendary paper also came about very recently, and was a longitutenal study of economic status in the USA between various demographics, It also blows out of the water that the idea of economic disparities between ethnicities in the USA are down to race/iq (the edgy “inconvienient” truth")
, the summary of the paper this article discusses: http://www.equality-of-opportunity.org/assets/documents/race_summary.pdf
and the full paper ( the academically uninitiated may have trouble reading it) :