The Dummy's Guide to Fascism


#1

[CENTER]http://i.gyazo.com/3a02026f9eaa2f3a0ac8cc2a8994df44.png[/CENTER]

[B]What is fascism? [/B]
Fascism is an authoritarian ideology designed as a ‘Third Way’ between capitalism and socialism that has its ideological origins in the fin de siècle period of the 19th century. It is characterised by its view that the state should safeguard the culture and traditions of the people who make up the nation, and that it is the national community that defines the individual rather than the other way round. These two core beliefs have led to the development of at least six concepts that all strains of fascism follow to some extent, these are: palingenetic ultranationalism, militarism, social Darwinism, class unity, corporatism and autocracy. Most forms of fascism also promote autarky, but not all.

Below is a list of what each of these ideas actually entail:
[LIST]
[][B]Palingenetic ultranationalism: [/B]This is the most crucial tenent of fascism, and it is referred to by many as the concept of ‘national rebirth’. In short, palingenetic ultranationalism refers to the fascist desire to overthrow the decadent insitutions of old and replace them with new, nationalist institutions which can direct the nation into a new golden age. For fascists, this period of national rebirth is instrumental in overthrowing the decadent liberalism of the past regime, allowing the nation to flourish once again. Palingenetic ultranationalism normally takes the form of a fascist revolution designed to relight the spirit of a nation and unite all classes behind one common goal: the betterment of the nation and her peoples.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[
][B]Militarism: [/B]This is closesly linked to the idea of palingenetic ultranationalism explained above. Fascists argue that in order for the national rebirth to be sustained, the state must have a strong military that is active in all parts of life. This strong military will act to uphold a strong state that can preserve the traditions and ideals of the nation, and therefore act in the best interests of the people. Many fascists also argue that all citizens should at least have some form of military training, as the military promotes comradeship and self-enhancement which are crucical to the sustainment of not only the national rebirth, but also of the sustainment of class unity. In short, fascists believe that a strong people equals a strong state.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[][B]Social Darwinism:[/B] This aspect of fascism is characterised by an attempt to apply the evolutionary theory of natural selection through the survival of the fittest to both politics and sociology. It should be mentioned that the fascist interpretation of social Darwinism is distinctly different from what some capitalists propose. Instead of advocating social Darwinism as a way to improve the individual, fascists advocate social Darwinism as a way in which to improve the nation as a whole. Fascistic social Darwinism, therefore, is characterised by state-directed eugenics programs. Allowing an individualistic interpretation of social Darwinism would undermine the class collaboration championed by all fascists.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[
][B]Class unity: [/B]Fascists reject the Marxist vision of class conflict in order to reach an egalitarian society, and as such they therefore reject socialism as a socio-economic system. On these very same grounds, fascists also reject capitalism, proclaiming that such conflict would be detrimental to the unity of the nation. Instead, fascists advocate a concept known as class unity or class collaboration, which accepts the existence of a natural hierarchy within society and aims to unite all classes in its defence. Class collaboration is also advocated as a way to ensure the stablity and betterment of the nation.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[][B]Corporatism: [/B]As explained in the paragraph on class unity above, fascists reject both capitalism and socialism. Instead, fascists advocate a ‘Third Way’ known as corporatism. Corporatist economics are characterised by a mixture of both public controlled insitutions and privately-run organisations (referred to as corporations). Proponents of corporatist economics see society as an organic body that is morally bound to achieving class unity, and therefore advocate corporative bodies which are mediated by the state in order to prevent conflicts of interest. These corporative bodies are collectively run by both the employers and the workers, allowing both groups to have their interests fully represented. It should be noted that corporatism is not restricted purely to fascism, and that the roots of corporatism can be found in both syndicalism and guild socialism.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[
][B]Autocracy:[/B] Fascists reject democracy on the grounds that it leads to social decadence and disunity, as well as the fact that it ultimately results in a weak, unstable government. For fascists, the state must be strong and ready for action at all times, and a strong dictator is the perfect way in which to achieve this. This leader must also be a symbol of national unity: the embodiment of the nation in human form. As such, the veneration of political leaders is common practice within fascist states. It should also be noted that some strands of fascism within nations with a pre-existing monarchy have attempted to reconcile the two, creating a fascist state in which power is shared unevenly between the monarch and the fascist dictator, i.e. Benito Mussolini and King Victor Emmanuel III.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[*][B]Autarky: [/B]Whilst not something advocated by all forms of fascism, autarky is still an important concept to many strands of fascism. In simple terms, autarky is the desire for a nation to be one-hundred percent self-sufficient. Many fascists justify this desire by claiming that any nation that is not self-sufficient is under the economic control of other nations, and therefore not able to fully represent the interests of the people.
[/LIST]
[B]What are the origins of fascism?[/B]
Fascism came to prominance during the early 20th century, first gaining a stronghold in Italy under the leadership of Benito Mussolini following the end of the First World War. Mussolini is universally recognised as the father of fascism, although credit must also be given to Giovanni Gentile who co-wrote [I]The Doctrine of Fascism[/I] alongside Mussolini. The origins of fascism, however, date back further than the 20th century, and are instead grounded in the philosophical, economic, and social works of the fin de siècle period of the 19th century.

[CENTER]http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/files/2014/09/benito-mussolini.jpg[/CENTER]

Characterised by its rejection of materialism, rationalism, positivism and liberal democracy, the fin de siècle was a period of turbulence in Europe, with the works of philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche invoking mass controversy throughout the continent. In fact, Nietzsche’s theory of the “will to power” and his concept of the “Übermensch” would go on to have a profound impact on both fascism and National Socialism. B.A Morel’s theory of degeneration that was proposed during this period had a long-lasting effect on those who would later come to describe themselves as fascists, claiming that palingenetic ultranationalism and authoritarianism were the only ways through which the degeneration of civilization could be prevented. The economics of fascism also found their roots in this period, as Georges Soral became famous for his revolutionary syndicalism. Fascists would later go on to form corporatist economic theories based off of Soral’s works.

[B]What other strands of fascism are there besides Italian Fascism?[/B]
Listing each and every strand of fascism would take a considerable amount of time and effort, as fascism is adapted to suit whichever country it takes root within. All nations have different cultures, traditions, etc. and so all nations require different ways in which to preserve them. The following list will cover two distinct branches of fascism that took root in Europe besides Italian Fascism.
[LIST]
[][B]British Fascism: [/B]Although the British fascist movement never obtained any real political power, Sir Oswald Mosley’s political philosophy has had a long-lasting impact on the fascist movement as a whole. British Fascism looked back at British history for ideas on how to secure a successful national rebirth for Britain. In the end, many British Fascists concluded that the example of Tudor England and its attempts to achieve national integration through a centralized authoritarian state was perfect for a form of British Fascism. Mosley also held Oliver Cromwell in high regard, claiming that he had brought about “the first fascist age in England”. Britain’s previous usage of a guild system during the medieval period was also used to justify corporatist economics. Unlike many other fascist movements, British Fascism did not plan to remove democracy from the system entirely, and instead advocated a form of authoritarian democracy that was distinctly different from what Mussolini had advocated. In his [I]Fascism: 100 Questions Asked & Answered[/I], Mosley outlined a plan to combine both Westminster parliamentry democracy with fascism, eventually concluding that the fascist state could be voted out of office through a referendum held every five years - although in practice these would probably be held earlier in order to ensure the continued public support of the fascist state.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[
][B]Falangism: [/B]Falangism is a form of fascism that came to power in Spain during the Spanish Civil War. Unlike other forms of fascism, Falangism was not focused on creating a corporatist economic system, instead it advocated a system known as national syndicalism. Falangism was also characterised by its strong support for racial purity, clearly distinguishing it from both British Fascism and Italian Fascism. This strong racialism led to the development of a concept known as “pan-Hispanism” within the Falange, resulting in the advocacy of the cultural and economic integration of all Hispanic communities across the globe. Contrary to popular belief, whilst Francsico Franco is commonly portrayed as the face of Falangism, he was not a fascist himself. Instead, Franco was an authoritarian conservative who - contrary to the core tenents of fascism - embraced capitalism as an economic system fully compatible with Falangism.
[/LIST]
If you wish to read into more examples of fascism, then I suggest you read into the Legionairism of Corneliu Codreanu’s Iron Guard. António Salazar’s corporatist Portugal would also be a good starting point, although [I]technically[/I] he wasn’t a fascist.

[B]What is the difference between National Socialism, Strasserism and fascism?[/B]
The key difference is racism and anti-semetism. Whilst both ideologies are anti-liberalism, anti-democracy and anti-communism, only National Socialism can be considered to be the anti-semetic variation of the two. National Socialism takes its anti-liberalism and anti-communism one step further by proclaiming that the Jewish peoples are responsible for their existence. The racial concepts of National Socialism are already well known - Aryanism, etc. - and do not need to be explained. Strasserism is essentially the same as National Socialism in all things bar economics. Strasserites are economically more left-wing than your typical National Socialist. Unfortunately for them, this eventually led to them being purged from the NSDAP in the infamous Night of the Long Knives.

[CENTER]http://www.telequebec.tv/images/contenus/produits/100098621/produit/640x360/_defaut.jpg[/CENTER]

[B]What misconceptions are there?[/B]
The two biggest misconceptions of fascism is that it is racist and homophobic in all circumstances. Not all strands of fascism enshrine racism and homophobia, and many fascists on this forum have already stated that they are neither a racist nor a homophobe.

[U][B]Notices[/B][/U]
[LIST=1]
[][B]This is a very basic guide to fascism, and the ideology itself is far more complex.[/B]
[
][B]Any views expressed in this guide are not necessarily the views of the author.[/B]
[/LIST]


A Theory I had
#2

[QUOTE=“Joshrune, post: 112434, member: 2313”]
[CENTER]http://i.gyazo.com/3a02026f9eaa2f3a0ac8cc2a8994df44.png[/CENTER]

[B]What is fascism? [/B]
Fascism is an authoritarian ideology designed as a ‘Third Way’ between capitalism and socialism that has its ideological origins in the fin de siècle period of the 19th century. It is characterised by its view that the state should safeguard the culture and traditions of the people who make up the nation, and that it is the national community that defines the individual rather than the other way round. These two core beliefs have led to the development of at least six concepts that all strains of fascism follow to some extent, these are: palingenetic ultranationalism, militarism, social Darwinism, class unity, corporatism and autocracy. Most forms of fascism also promote autarky, but not all.

Below is a list of what each of these ideas actually entail:
[LIST]
[][B]Palingenetic ultranationalism: [/B]This is the most crucial tenent of fascism, and it is referred to by many as the concept of ‘national rebirth’. In short, palingenetic ultranationalism refers to the fascist desire to overthrow the decadent insitutions of old and replace them with new, nationalist institutions which can direct the nation into a new golden age. For fascists, this period of national rebirth is instrumental in overthrowing the decadent liberalism of the past regime, allowing the nation to flourish once again. Palingenetic ultranationalism normally takes the form of a fascist revolution designed to relight the spirit of a nation and unite all classes behind one common goal: the betterment of the nation and her peoples.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[
][B]Militarism: [/B]This is closesly linked to the idea of palingenetic ultranationalism explained above. Fascists argue that in order for the national rebirth to be sustained, the state must have a strong military that is active in all parts of life. This strong military will act to uphold a strong state that can preserve the traditions and ideals of the nation, and therefore act in the best interests of the people. Many fascists also argue that all citizens should at least have some form of military training, as the military promotes comradeship and self-enhancement which are crucical to the sustainment of not only the national rebirth, but also of the sustainment of class unity. In short, fascists believe that a strong people equals a strong state.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[][B]Social Darwinism:[/B] This aspect of fascism is characterised by an attempt to apply the evolutionary theory of natural selection through the survival of the fittest to both politics and sociology. It should be mentioned that the fascist interpretation of social Darwinism is distinctly different from what some capitalists propose. Instead of advocating social Darwinism as a way to improve the individual, fascists advocate social Darwinism as a way in which to improve the nation as a whole. Fascistic social Darwinism, therefore, is characterised by state-directed eugenics programs. Allowing an individualistic interpretation of social Darwinism would undermine the class collaboration championed by all fascists.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[
][B]Class unity: [/B]Fascists reject the Marxist vision of class conflict in order to reach an egalitarian society, and as such they therefore reject socialism as a socio-economic system. On these very same grounds, fascists also reject capitalism, proclaiming that such conflict would be detrimental to the unity of the nation. Instead, fascists advocate a concept known as class unity or class collaboration, which accepts the existence of a natural hierarchy within society and aims to unite all classes in its defence. Class collaboration is also advocated as a way to ensure the stablity and betterment of the nation.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[][B]Corporatism: [/B]As explained in the paragraph on class unity above, fascists reject both capitalism and socialism. Instead, fascists advocate a ‘Third Way’ known as corporatism. Corporatist economics are characterised by a mixture of both public controlled insitutions and privately-run organisations (referred to as corporations). Proponents of corporatist economics see society as an organic body that is morally bound to achieving class unity, and therefore advocate corporative bodies which are mediated by the state in order to prevent conflicts of interest. These corporative bodies are collectively run by both the employers and the workers, allowing both groups to have their interests fully represented. It should be noted that corporatism is not restricted purely to fascism, and that the roots of corporatism can be found in both syndicalism and guild socialism.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[
][B]Autocracy:[/B] Fascists reject democracy on the grounds that it leads to social decadence and disunity, as well as the fact that it ultimately results in a weak, unstable government. For fascists, the state must be strong and ready for action at all times, and a strong dictator is the perfect way in which to achieve this. This leader must also be a symbol of national unity: the embodiment of the nation in human form. As such, the veneration of political leaders is common practice within fascist states. It should also be noted that some strands of fascism within nations with a pre-existing monarchy have attempted to reconcile the two, creating a fascist state in which power is shared unevenly between the monarch and the fascist dictator, i.e. Benito Mussolini and King Victor Emmanuel III.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[*][B]Autarky: [/B]Whilst not something advocated by all forms of fascism, autarky is still an important concept to many strands of fascism. In simple terms, autarky is the desire for a nation to be one-hundred percent self-sufficient. Many fascists justify this desire by claiming that any nation that is not self-sufficient is under the economic control of other nations, and therefore not able to fully represent the interests of the people.
[/LIST]
[B]What are the origins of fascism?[/B]
Fascism came to prominance during the early 20th century, first gaining a stronghold in Italy under the leadership of Benito Mussolini following the end of the First World War. Mussolini is universally recognised as the father of fascism, although credit must also be given to Giovanni Gentile who co-wrote [I]The Doctrine of Fascism[/I] alongside Mussolini. The origins of fascism, however, date back further than the 20th century, and are instead grounded in the philosophical, economic, and social works of the fin de siècle period of the 19th century.

[CENTER]http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/files/2014/09/benito-mussolini.jpg[/CENTER]

Characterised by its rejection of materialism, rationalism, positivism and liberal democracy, the fin de siècle was a period of turbulence in Europe, with the works of philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche invoking mass controversy throughout the continent. In fact, Nietzsche’s theory of the “will to power” and his concept of the “Übermensch” would go on to have a profound impact on both fascism and National Socialism. B.A Morel’s theory of degeneration that was proposed during this period had a long-lasting effect on those who would later come to describe themselves as fascists, claiming that palingenetic ultranationalism and authoritarianism were the only ways through which the degeneration of civilization could be prevented. The economics of fascism also found their roots in this period, as Georges Soral became famous for his revolutionary syndicalism. Fascists would later go on to form corporatist economic theories based off of Soral’s works.

[B]What other strands of fascism are there besides Italian Fascism?[/B]
Listing each and every strand of fascism would take a considerable amount of time and effort, as fascism is adapted to suit whichever country it takes root within. All nations have different cultures, traditions, etc. and so all nations require different ways in which to preserve them. The following list will cover two distinct branches of fascism that took root in Europe besides Italian Fascism.
[LIST]
[][B]British Fascism: [/B]Although the British fascist movement never obtained any real political power, Sir Oswald Mosley’s political philosophy has had a long-lasting impact on the fascist movement as a whole. British Fascism looked back at British history for ideas on how to secure a successful national rebirth for Britain. In the end, many British Fascists concluded that the example of Tudor England and its attempts to achieve national integration through a centralized authoritarian state was perfect for a form of British Fascism. Mosley also held Oliver Cromwell in high regard, claiming that he had brought about “the first fascist age in England”. Britain’s previous usage of a guild system during the medieval period was also used to justify corporatist economics. Unlike many other fascist movements, British Fascism did not plan to remove democracy from the system entirely, and instead advocated a form of authoritarian democracy that was distinctly different from what Mussolini had advocated. In his [I]Fascism: 100 Questions Asked & Answered[/I], Mosley outlined a plan to combine both Westminster parliamentry democracy with fascism, eventually concluding that the fascist state could be voted out of office through a referendum held every five years - although in practice these would probably be held earlier in order to ensure the continued public support of the fascist state.
[/LIST]
[LIST]
[
][B]Falangism: [/B]Falangism is a form of fascism that came to power in Spain during the Spanish Civil War. Unlike other forms of fascism, Falangism was not focused on creating a corporatist economic system, instead it advocated a system known as national syndicalism. Falangism was also characterised by its strong support for racial purity, clearly distinguishing it from both British Fascism and Italian Fascism. This strong racialism led to the development of a concept known as “pan-Hispanism” within the Falange, resulting in the advocacy of the cultural and economic integration of all Hispanic communities across the globe. Contrary to popular belief, whilst Francsico Franco is commonly portrayed as the face of Falangism, he was not a fascist himself. Instead, Franco was an authoritarian conservative who - contrary to the core tenents of fascism - embraced capitalism as an economic system fully compatible with Falangism.
[/LIST]
If you wish to read into more examples of fascism, then I suggest you read into the Legionairism of Corneliu Codreanu’s Iron Guard. António Salazar’s corporatist Portugal would also be a good starting point, although [I]technically[/I] he wasn’t a fascist.

[B]What is the difference between National Socialism, Strasserism and fascism?[/B]
The key difference is racism and anti-semetism. Whilst both ideologies are anti-liberalism, anti-democracy and anti-communism, only National Socialism can be considered to be the anti-semetic variation of the two. National Socialism takes its anti-liberalism and anti-communism one step further by proclaiming that the Jewish peoples are responsible for their existence. The racial concepts of National Socialism are already well known - Aryanism, etc. - and do not need to be explained. Strasserism is essentially the same as National Socialism in all things bar economics. Strasserites are economically more left-wing than your typical National Socialist. Unfortunately for them, this eventually led to them being purged from the NSDAP in the infamous Night of the Long Knives.

[CENTER]http://www.telequebec.tv/images/contenus/produits/100098621/produit/640x360/_defaut.jpg[/CENTER]

[B]What misconceptions are there?[/B]
The two biggest misconceptions of fascism is that it is racist and homophobic in all circumstances. Not all strands of fascism enshrine racism and homophobia, and many fascists on this forum have already stated that they are neither a racist nor a homophobe.

[U][B]Notices[/B][/U]
[LIST=1]
[][B]This is a very basic guide to fascism, and the ideology itself is far more complex.[/B]
[
][B]Any views expressed in this guide are not necessarily the views of the author.[/B]
[/LIST]
[/QUOTE]
Excellent guide, I put a link on the YD Facebook page and shared it on the YD Twitter.


#3

[QUOTE=“Allegrif, post: 112442, member: 1”]Excellent guide, I put a link on the YD Facebook page and shared it on the YD Twitter.[/QUOTE]
The competition is [I]on [/I]now.


#4

“The Key difference is Anti-Semitism and Racism”.

Maybe that was the difference pre-1940s, but now nearly all Fascist movements are racist and anti-semitic.


#5

[QUOTE=“De Dannan, post: 112646, member: 1324”]“The Key difference is Anti-Semitism and Racism”.

Maybe that was the difference pre-1940s, but now nearly all Fascist movements are racist and anti-semitic.[/QUOTE]
True, but this isn’t a guide for the more modern forms of fascism. They require a whole guide to themselves.


#6

Liked it because it’s a very good and detailed guide, not cause I’m a fascist.

Now we just need someone to write one like this on socialism/communism; one a little more detailed than Divair’s (not like his is bad).